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The fact, however, that the NYPD's Domain Awareness System is a city program (a uniquely large city, to be sure) shows that resolution of appropriate limits and oversight will play out at multiple levels of government: federal, state, and local. Besides federal data-mining programs, most states, and many major cities, for example, now have intelligence fusion centers for combining and analyzing threat information and coordinating across many jurisdictions. Herein lies additional legal and policy complexity, but also opportunity to work through it. Given that it is highly unlikely that comprehensive federal legislation in this area will be enacted anytime soon, we will not have uniform rules to govern these growing capabilities. That is a good thing, because different locales face such different threats. Moreover, experimentation and adaptation, along with the public debate that accompanies them, can help cultivate and extend best-practices as these powerful analytic technologies continue to advance and spread.